Risk assessment and management in Oil & Gas
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Vapour/Gas explosions/fireball on onshore/offshore facilities represent a significant risk that needs to be considered due to the impact on personnel safety and plant damage. In house methodology, both based on empirical approach or using sophisticated CFD calculations has been adopted to quantify the consequences of hydrocarbon releases, evaluating the risk associated to a given set of representative parameter fields (pressure , temperature), calculated on assuming a probabilistic arguments distribution (leak frequencies, weather data, ignition probabilities).
Gas Dispersion studies are focused on the analysis of the dispersion of gas, smoke, toxics and combustible products from major process related incidents and to quantify their impact on the escape routes, temporary refuges and embarkation areas. The dispersion analysis is performed in order to evaluate all possible impacts related to: reduction of visibility due to the smoke column, concentration of toxic gases in the smokes and temperature fields.
FERA & Technical Safety
TEA has gained large experience in Fire & Explosion Risk Assessment (FERA), aimed to support design for:
- Define/Confirm Blast and Fire Protection requirements for Plant facilities
- Optimization of ESD philosophies and Emergency Response
- Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
- Failure Mode & Effects Consequence Analysis (FMECA)
- Simultaneous Operations (SIMOPS) Risk Assessment (Construction + Operation) for Green & Brownfields
- ALARP Assessment & Demonstration
About risk analysis
TEASistemi knowledge in multiphase and process technologies have been extensively used to provide the following service to industry:
- QRA / FERA
- Safety Design
- Fire Fighting
- Technical Safety Support
- Support to Permitting & Compliance
- Site Remediation
RAINBOW Project (Risk Assessment In a BlowOut)
Well blowouts are one of the most important accidents related to exploitation of hydrocarbons.
These events consist in uncontrolled release of fluids and the consequent generation of high velocity gas jets carrying entrained liquid droplets at appreciable height to ground or into the sea.
Relevant HSE risks may be associated to blowout events, whit risks for the operators, third parties
as well as environmental and reputational impacts.
Thanks to a decennial R&D activity under, Eni S.p.A. sponsorship TEA Sistemi has developed an integrated approach for the risk analysis of a blowout event.
TEA Sistemi carried out, for each operative areas specific R&D activities under both external sponsorship and internal research programs.
In this framework TEA makes available to the Clients the following resources:
- Computational Fluid Dynamic. Wide experience in a large range of application of CFD technology using the most important CFD tools like FLUENT, Star-CD, MIKE21, etc.
- Experimental activities. TEA is a rather unique company in the Italian outline as it runs a fully equipped multiphase flow laboratory with relevant capabilities. The laboratory is used for experiments within R&D programs committed or internally supported, as well as for factory acceptance tests.
- Extensive relationship with the academic world, both in Italy and worldwide.
Thanks to a decennial collaboration between Eni SpA and TEA Sistemi, RAINBOW, an integrated approach for the analysis of a blowout event, has been developed.
The consolidated RAINBOW framework incorporates state of art modelling validated against experimental and/or numerical data obtained from real blowouts cases or simulated laboratory experiments.
In general, RAINBOW methodology proposes three different approaches, which may be adopted to study a blowout:
- Best Estimate Approach carrying out detailed analyses of all the blowout phases with a high level of accuracy (CFD studies usually support this approach) on the blowout effects
- Standard Approach carrying out analyses using simplified modelling embedded into commercial software for simulating the blowout effects
- Short-Cut Approachcarrying out analyses by parametric systems (e.g. tables and graphs) for a quick evaluation of the blowout effects
Finally it is noted that in some instances, the RAINBOW methodology, can be applied also to buried pipeline releases.
The typical RAINBOW methodology applications are the following:
- Offsite Quantitative Risk Assessment studies
- Permitting activities
- Emergency Response Plan (ERP) preparation
- Oil Spill Contingency Plan (OSCP) preparation
- Field layout assessment (e.g. zoning, well location, etc.)
- Wells killing optimization (e.g. relief well location, killing design)
- Support to real or simulated emergency phases
In the last 20 years (see also figure below) about Blowout 200 studies have been performed with RAINBOW. The project was awarded the technological award by the R&D department of Eni SpA.